BASE Strategic Plan 2017-2021
- Country context
- Backward Society Education (BASE)
- Program Review
- Vision, Mission, Values
- Strategic Direction:
- Strategy 1
- Strategy 2
- Strategy 3
- Strategy 4
- Strategy 5
- Strategy 6
- Program Outcome
- Program Log Frame
- Progress Monitoring Plan
- Risk and Assumption
AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
BASE Backward Society Education
BLOP Better Life Options Program
CAAFAG Children Associated With Armed Forces and Armed Groups
DAO District Administrative Office
DfID Department for International Development
ECD Early Child Development
GDP Gross Domestic Product
GoN Government of Nepal
HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus
ICIMOD International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development
ILO International Labor Organization
INGO International Non-Governmental Organization
LLIN Long Lasting Insecticide Treated (mosquito nets)
NFE Non-Formal Education
NGO Non-Governmental Organization
SWC Social Welfare Council
UNDP United Nations Development Program
US United States (of America)
USAID United States Agency for International Development
WASH Water Sanitation and Health
Bandh Nepali word meaning ‘closed’. It refers to a forced strike in which businesses, shops and NGOs are required to close under the threat of violence from the political group calling the bandh.
Barghar A traditional indigenous and democratically elected Tharu village leader. Also known as a Bhalmansa or Mahataun in different areas of western Nepal.
Kamaiya Originally meaning ‘a person who works the land’, the meaning became distorted and now refers to a bonded laborer, usually a Tharu, from western Nepal. The kamaiya system was officially abolished in Nepal on 17 July 2000.
Maghi A Nepali month beginning in mid-January which is celebrated by Tharus as their New Year festival. It is one of the most important festivals in the Tharu calendar.
Tarai The plains area of Nepal which runs along the southern border with India.
Tharu One of the groups of recognized indigenous peoples in Nepal. The Tharu constitute approximately 7.5% of Nepal’s population and are mainly found in central and western Tarai areas.
From the ancient period Tharu’s are living in the Western Terai districts of Nepal. Over the last sixty years, Tharus have experienced an encroachment of land they traditionally inhabited. After the malaria eradication and some development initiatives, there was an influx of hill people in these areas. In the process of hill to Tarai migration many Tharus lost their land. Due to this they had to pay the loan which they hadn’t borrowed, They were force to work in the house of so called high class people without wage or in a very minimum wage to make their daily expenses. This brought about socio-economic consequences to unequal inter caste and inter class relations that affected Tharus more negatively. Exploitation, poor health, unclaimed right to natural resources, weak voice in government decision, poor access to market, lack of credit for their work and many other associated factors increases poverty among Tharus and other deprived community people of western Nepal. So called high class people blame Tharu’s social and culture factors are the reason which made them less cleaver and incapable of managing their lives. These perception and understanding supported Tharu’s weak voice and lack of their representation on politics.
In 1925, slavery and bonded labor was abolished but in practice remaining of the bounded labor system still exists in different parts of the country. Tharu families have been victims of Kamaiya system for generations. In 2000 July Government declared freedom of Kamaiya from bondeness. According to annual progress report, Department of land reform and management, government of Nepal 2071/072 32,509 families were under this system. After being free from bonded labor Kamaiyas are able to claim their rights.
After the end of Rana regime, development of Nepal has brought many new people, cultures and social and political forces to the Western Tarai. They also smartly grabbed the wealth of indigenous communities. Their cultural heritage like Tharu language, songs, dances, handicrafts, ornaments and daily use of equipments are gradually and consistently getting extinct. Tharus are losing control over natural resources like land, water and forest that they owned and used for ages due to their weak voice in the society.
Access to primary and reproductive health care is very limited. So, in Mid- Western and Far-Western part of Nepal many people, especially mothers and children, die from diseases that could easily be prevented. For example according to the health annual report 2013/14 a form of chronic malnutrition has come down to 41 percent in 2011 from 49 percent in 2006. The issues of insecurity and it contributing factors such as climate change related outcome (droughts, floods) including chronic, poverty, illiteracy, socio-economic disparity, internal displacement, rising gasoline price, rugged geo-topography are also conducive factor for under nutrition. Despite the important achievements in health sector over the past decade, the basic health system has yet to be improved and focuses should given to rural poor especially of remote areas. No deliberate effort has been initiated to provide health services to Tharus and other socially excluded groups.
Far and Mid West has relatively lower literacy and education rate in comparison to other part of Nepal. According to CBS 2011 report the literacy rate of mid west is 64 percent and far-west 63 percent which is less than national figure with 65.96 percent. Current statistics show that literacy and education situation is much worse among Tharus, Dalits and other socially excluded group than so called higher castes. Identification and ensuring equitable access to quality education is challenges in one hand and reaching remote and marginalized groups with relevant and diverse needs including language, culture and local knowledge and value system in another. Political, Social and economic factors are also responsible for such difference which consistently denied the services to this group. There has been some progress in the accessibility of education but there is a lot to be done to bring socially excluded to the equal level as others.
Earlier conflict period of Nepal has affected directly or indirectly in rural as well as urban areas. Many people have been internally or externally displaced. Many children lost one or both parents. Many families have lost their property. Since youth are fleeing to the foreign countries, only old men, women and children are found in the villages. Due to heavy migration from villages farming land are left uncultivated and most of the cultivated land is being plotting without proper planning which has negative consequences on livelihood.
Nepal is facing various ups and downs in the field of politics. The new constitution of Nepal Asoj 3, 2072 (20 Sep. 2015) came into practice still pace of development is not in the expectation of Nepalese people. Due to some of the political party and ethnic groups’ disagreement on boundary demarcation, language and citizenship issues etc. the government is facing challenges to implement the mandate of new constitution and carry on election. Due to which government didn’t remain stable on the one hand and the constitution is not being implementing in time on the other hand.
Kamaiya were freed by the advocacy from all sides. Now Ex – Kamaiyas are empowered, however their access to decision making level is less which affect on exercise of power sharing. They are doing community development work along with advocacy by forming their own organization. But only the form of exploitation has been changed in the society, instead of Kamaiya, child labor is substituted. The number of child labor is being increased day by day, if proper attention is not given on it, this will create great problem.On the global context, balance in nature has been degraded due to human’s misuse on forest, factories, atomic reactor which has resulted climate change. Climate change in the world is also affecting Nepal.
Backward Society Education (BASE)
Small groups of young Tharus of 18 years old started rebelling against the view that social and cultural factors are responsible for lower status of Tharus. This rebellion reached to a point that Backward Society Education (BASE) was initiated. BASE started to work as a small NGO in Dang which now has grown into a large organization, almost a popular movement. Today BASE is working with Tharus as well as disadvantaged people from other castes, in Dang, Banke, Bardiya, Kailali, Kanchanpur, Salyan, Rukum,Surkhet, Pyuthan, Rolpa, Arghakhanchi, Dolpa, Dailekh, Dadeldhura, Doti, Darchula and Baitadi districts.
BASE is a membership organization, with 300,000 general members. It has a political structure with different level of committees elected on village, area, district and central levels. It has also a project part with central and field staff to implement different development and advocacy programs. BASE’s project activities focus on education, WASH, health & nutrition, conflict mitigation/management, governance, alternative energy, economic development, advocacy and human rights, youth & development, preservation and promotion of natural resources and cultural heritage and relief assistance and re-establishment during natural calamities. The beneficiaries are rural poor, discriminated people, ex-kamaiya, Dalit, child labor, predominantly Tharu, youth and women.
BASE has been coordinating with donor/partner organizations for financial support from the time of its establishment. This has developed intimate relation with donor/partner organizations. Currently BASE has partnership with Save the Children, ADRA Nepal, Banyan Tree Foundation, World Education, , Room to Read, USAID/Sajhedari Bikash, The Asia Foundation, Alternative Energy Promotion Centre, UNESCO, RTI, HKI, CARE Nepal, Marcy Corps and Department of Agriculture/RISM. In addition BASE has been member in different international and national networks like, BBA and Kailash Satyarthi Children’s Foundation, Antislavery network, Global Youth Connect, Fore Front, Global March, Ashoka Foundation, Asian Indigenous Committee and NGO Federation,
BASE is not just an NGO but one of the largest social movements in South Asia. So BASE is not only involved in the development work. Beside this BASE raise a voice for indigenous people’s rights. BASE campaigns for the abolition of child labor system and social justice. BASE raises a strong voice against exploitation, injustice and deprivation. BASE had played a vital role to end the Kamaiya system. That’s why BASE has been awarded with several national and international awards like Anti Slavery award, Rebook Human Rights award, Jayadayal Harmony Award, Gorkha Dachhin Bahu and Bikhyat Trishakti Patta.
BASE strongly implemented non formal education program form 1990-2000, with the realization that Tharu’s can be empowered only through education. During the period 2000 – 2010 decade, BASE focused on formal and technical education and from 2011 the organization has been focusing to ensure quality education. Education program was supplemented with health services, livelihood program and rights based advocacy particularly focusing on freeing Kamaiya and upliftment of marginalized community. This brought a great change in the awareness of poor, landless and bonded labors. For the social transformation of the society BASE effectively launched rights based advocacy along with community integrated development program.
Since past 25 years BASE has been launching social development programs for socially, economically deprived community. BASE has been focusing on education program from the very beginning with the slogan “First sight on Education”. BASE has been implementing education program as a focal point with the view that only education can bring positive changes and empower the people with capable and accountable citizen in the society. Along with this BASE has been launching in the following thematic program areas: education, WASH, health & nutrition, conflict mitigation/management, governance, alternative energy & climate change, economic development, advocacy and human rights, youth & development, preservation and promotion of natural resources and cultural heritage and relief assistance and re-establishment during natural calamities. BASE has Sanghari concept for institutional development and for promotion of sustainable development to build up the capacity of community people.
Government has not been able to completely rehabilitate Ex–Kamaiya. Now BASE has applied strategy on rights based advocacy like quality education and health service, meaningful participation of women, end of exploitation, campaign against child labor and WASH rights, promotion of nutrition, Indigenous people’s rights on natural resources and indigenous people’s traditional system and customary law must get validity from state.
BASE has been giving emphasis on organizational and capacity building, empowerment of economically, socially oppressed people and for their freeness from exploitation. BASE believes that strong organization can contribute in poverty alleviation and in effective program implementation. BASE has been advocating traditional leadership system like Badghar/Bhalmansa/Mahataun to be further strengthened for reorganizing communities. Village level activists played a vital role as a motivator or a facilitator for high level of community participation. Entire programs carried out by BASE were implemented with strong participation of community people and its members so they feel ownership towards the organization and increase in membership. BASE has developed and expanded its relation with various donors and partners organization to fulfill numerous needs and demands. Till now 3000 civil organizations (BASE village committee), 1038 women groups and 31,418 youth members are involved in BASE’s network. BASE has expanded its program on 17 districts.
Creation of exploitation free and prosperous Society in Nepal
BASE commits to build equitable, peaceful and advance society through socio-economic, human resource and institutional development; cultural, environmental and human rights protection and promotion; and advocacy.
- BASE believes on mass membership and civic organizations as strength of organization.
- Development pursued through the participation of civic organization is sustainable.
- BASE activist should be role model in the community by adhering to a code of conduct.
- BASE believes local resources optimum mobilization decreases dependency on external fund.
- Effective communication is required for development of an organization.
- Women group and grass root civic organization can successfully undertake any enterprise and community work.
- Social and human resource development is more important than physical development.
- Local communities are able to identify their own need, therefore BASE believes in participatory development.
- BASE members have realized that voluntary labor should be contributed to community development for the ownership of the program.
- Protections, promotion of indigenous culture as well local skill are necessary for community development.
- Social movements create efficient civil society.
- People must get organized to claim their rights.
- BASE works on social issues without geographical boundaries.
- Society and the country can develop only through the equal development of all communities.
- Education is the main gate of development.
- BASE believes coordination between government and non- governmental organization can add faster development.
- Development should address equity on gender, caste, class and regional balance.
- BASE believes in democratic system.
- Physical development can’t sustain without human development.
- BASE believes in child friendly village for holistic development of the community.
- BASE believes customary law can give social justice.
- Equal participation of male and female is required for entire development sector.
- Traditional social structures like Badhgar/Bhalmansa/Mahataun system are reliable democratic practices for local development process.
- Partnership and external financial support is required for development.
- Federal autonomy system makes access of Marginalized communities in decision making process.
BASE will focus thematic areas on quality education, WASH, health & nutrition, conflict mitigation/management, governance, alternative energy & climate change, economic development, advocacy and human rights, youth & development, preservation and promotion of natural resources and cultural heritage and relief assistance and re-establishment during natural calamities: Quality education will be focus in general and remediation of school children in particular. Build capacity of marginalized communities to access to WASH services and claim their rights, conflict mitigation & management as well as disaster preparedness and response. Similarly, capacitate of local government to increase accountability towards citizen. Promote renewable energy to protect climate change. Health & nutrition and livelihood opportunities will be provided through its programming. Traditional indigenous knowledge, practices and historical culture will be promoted through indigenous traditional institution. Women and youth will be mobilized for lobby and advocacy for human rights and ensure their participation in decision making.
BASE will have some shift on program implementation modalities: In the past, BASE had the policy that BASE members will take over the project to implement the program. Now it is realized that BASE members will focus on policy formation and staffs will continue implementing the program. While implementing education program, focus will be given on quality formal education and technical education as well as informal education. In order to empower women banking facility will be provided with financial support. BASE will organize program for the institutionalization of indigenous people’s traditional structure and customary laws.
BASE will expand its working areas to achieve high level of success on raising its profile: BASE will launch programs like youth participation; child to child learning/teaching approach and international network expand. In addition, BASE will continue its program on relief assistance, environmental conservation and promotion program. BASE will put some efforts on internal fund raising and also intends to expand geographical coverage of its working area as per new federal structure within this strategic plan period.
BASE will strengthen its national and international networks as well as establish new networks: As national and international network contributed to make visible institution on development and advocacy, current networks will be further strengthened. Cross boarder network with Indian civic society organizations will be developed to contribute on the prevention of child and girl trafficking. In order to make strong communication system, BASE will develop and mobilize different Medias like website, face-book, newspaper publication, audio video material production, FM broadcasting, e-bulletin, twitter, YouTube, etc.
BASE will continue working with Tharu, women and socially excluded community as well as remote area: BASE has always been targeting deprived community and remote area as its working population which will be continued in the future..
BASE will strengthen its internal management system so that highest professional standard is met on program implementation: BASE will strengthen its financial management system with account software program so that it is transparent among concerned stakeholders. There will be serious efforts to develop leadership from among deprived community so that their voice is heard. Through effective advocacy program Government and other stakeholders will be made more accountable to deprived people. There will be management of well equipped training hall, complain box and response mechanism, issue logbook system, library and study room, and electronic attendance system for human resource development of BASE.
Living standard of socially excluded improved through the provision of better access to quality services and transformation to non-discriminated and progressive society.
Program Objective and outcomes
Improve life standard of socially excluded community through education, WASH rights, health and nutrition service and economic development.
Students’ learning achievement will be increased and retention rate will be improved, women and adolescent will be empowered and youth will be supported for higher education.
Awareness will be increased to improve health and nutrition condition. Health and nutrition services will be provided for the eradication of cholera, malaria, diarrhea, malnutrition and other transmittable diseases and reduce the rate of spread of STD and HIV/AIDS.
Small groups will have associated with cooperative for the income generation. Economic development programs will have implemented coordinating and cooperating with government and non government organization. In addition, the members of women group and cooperative will have received skill development training and loan facility for the initiation of enterprises. There will be employment opportunities for socially excluded community.
Access to safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene behavior will be improved.
BASE will help the village saving groups (women groups and civic organizations) consolidate all into larger co-operatives which will allow villagers to take larger loans for productive purposes. BASE will support agricultural development, small-scale irrigation, cottage industries, business and other occupation to benefit small-farmers through cooperative and micro finance program. BASE will provide technical and human resource development training, support for the cooperatives, such as training for capacity building, cottage industries, livestock keeping, agriculture training, skill development training, marketing and networking. To ensure that freed kamaiyas, women and poor benefit from cooperatives, BASE will make special efforts to identify the needs of freed Kamaiya and Kamlaharis, women groups and support specific income generation activities along with loan facility for them.
BASE will continue emphasizing on education program to increase literacy of adults and increase enrollment of school going aged children. To literate the future generations BASE will prioritize primary education. Physical facilities of schools will be upgraded. Students from deprived communities will be supported for secondary and higher education. Scholarship for higher education will be provided to gentile students from socially excluded group.
BASE will expand health program to all its working districts in collaboration and cooperation with Nepal government and district public health office by mobilizing local resources. BASE will provide health education like safe motherhood, family planning, mother and child care, personal hygiene and environmental sanitation, general health check up and health education through literacy programs. BASE will integrate health and awareness program to other programs. Through trainings, workshops and national day program, people will be encouraged to make toilets, improved cooking stoves (CICS) and improve health and sanitation situation.
In order to mitigate the effect of disasters, the community based disaster preparedness and response committee will be formed and reformed and members will be trained to respond. In need, BASE members as well as other community members will participate to respond promptly in disaster situation. People affected from natural and manmade disasters will be provided the most needed relief support. Necessary coordination with governmental and non-governmental organizations will be done by BASE central committee.
Elimination of child labor, rehabilitation of ex–kamaiya and conflict management, mitigation and transformation to protect human rights
Free and compulsory education will have implemented, forced labor system will be eliminated, remaining Ex–Kamaiya will be properly rehabilitated.
Community will be aware about human rights through members of child club and youth club that will contribute to minimize violence, discrimination against gender, ethnicity, social and culture.
Youth, women, local peace committee, Sambad Samuha and community mediation center will be capable for conflict management, mitigation and transformation. They will avoid offensive activities and conflict free peaceful society will be built.
Government will be accountable towards socially excluded community for effective service delivery.
BASE will help groups and civic organizations to claim their rights. Major focus of advocacy will be on child rights, elimination of child labor and kamlahari system, ex-Kamaiya’s land rights rehabilitation, right to tenancy share, forced unpaid labor and minimum wage. BASE will organize people by forming Small Farmers Union and village Civic Organizations. For child rights, BASE will give pressure through child clubs to the government for the implementation of the Child Right Convention (CRC). Training will be provided to leaders in the community to build their capacity and confidence for rights-based advocacy. BASE will establish a media and networking center to lobby decision on behalf of oppressed people. Different material such as posters, pamphlets, FM broadcast and other audiovisual material will be published for the education and awareness of the target group.
BASE will establish Information, Communication and documentation resource Center. Advocacy related materiel will be published from this center. BASE will collect information about Local Government. Community will be provided orientation on how local government bodies work and how people can claim their right. BASE will develop a network between women groups and women representatives in the local level through joint trainings and orientations.
BASE will work to implement laws such as the minimum wage law and other basic human and legal rights in close cooperation with other NGOs and civic organizations working for similar goals. The resource centre will study the legal situation of poor people and determine what rights they can achieve to get work in their own community. On the basis of this, BASE will provide joint orientation and training for local bodies’ officials and local community.
BASE will support to track the budget as provisioned in governmental guideline and enhance social accountability. . Results of budget tracking will go to advocacy activists to inform and mobilize the local community to follow up. If local bodies are found misusing the budget, local people will be encouraged to raise voice against it. People will give pressure to local bodies to implement qualitative programs in time.
Conserve and improve management of natural resources, preservation and promotion of renewable energy, traditional practices and indigenous culture.
Local indigenous community people will have preserved and improved the management of forest and proper used of non timber forest products NTFP.
Community people will be aware on renewable energy, mobilize of local resources that will support to reduce dependency on traditional energy.
Tharu’s traditional structures: Mahataun/ Badghar/ Bhalmansa will be protected and promoted cultural value and heritage.
Community forest programs allow local people’s access and control over the natural resources in the forests. BASE will support the formation of community forests throughout its working area. Advocacy will be done for increasing indigenous peoples’ control of existing community forests, use of non timber forest products, water and other natural resources. New management systems and technology (alternative energy) may allow better use of natural resources. BASE will explore and support such opportunities where they exist. Local community will be educated on the necessity of conservation of natural resources and improved management of forest. Availability of NTFP will be assessed, a strategy will be developed for sustainable use and local community will be educated on it. Environmental sanitation programs will be implemented at the village level to improve the health situation and preserve the beauty of villages.
BASE will continue to protect and develop indigenous culture through the use of traditional and modern media. BASE will do advocacy to assure for legal entity of customary law and traditional custom of indigenous people; prime rights on natural resources and equal and meaningful participation in the state organs: legislative, executive and judiciary based on their population ratio. At the same time, BASE will continue to encourage the traditional culture and custom through campaigning, competitions and exhibitions. Tharu dance is an integral part of BASE from its very beginning, and will be encouraged and supported continuously. BASE will also reflect on different aspects of culture to encourage people to think about what they value and why.
Empower women and youth and develop human resources for equitable society.
Youth will get education on youth rights & responsibilities and women will be provided package program for women-empowerment.
BASE staffs and committee members will get training on various subjects and there will be proper management of training hall, study room with sufficient materials in the central level.
Leaders from backward community will have developed who can reach up to decision making level.
BASE will support to mitigate conflict through youth participation and institutionalization of traditional structures. With an objective to participate youth power in development works, the youth clubs will be reformed and strengthened. The district level as well as central level youth networking will be empowered in BASE working districts. These youth will be given opportunities to get involved in different creative works. Various trainings, workshop, meetings, interactions, observation tour, assembly and conferences will be held for women empowerment.
BASE will develop well equipped human resource development center HRDC. This HRDC will coordinate for the trainings offered by organization. Management capacity will be developed in districts, areas and co-operatives. A realistic working plan will be developed to provide academic and non-academic skill development trainings for potential activists and staffs of the organization. For the required human resources to the organization, the first preference will be given to the members of the organization. National and international resource person will be invited to assist BASE workers and civic organization for building advocacy capacities. BASE invites other organizations to organize training through human resource development center to raise internal fund of the organization. Human resource development center will publicize and call for study, internships and study tour. Training hall and meeting hall with corner library will be established in BASE central office.
Provide relief and rehabilitation support to disaster affected and vulnerable communities.
Youth will be capacitated on disaster risk reduction and response. Community people will be equipped and aware on preparedness as well as supported with rescue and rehabilitation packages.
Management objective and output
Strengthen management system by effective enforcement of financial, administrative regulation and information system.
Review and amendment of BASE administrative policy and financial system will be carried out. Improvement in information, communication and documentation system and practice of good governance will be applied within the organization.
BASE internal fund will be generated and strengthened.
Decentralize programs will be carried continuously and expanded to other areas.
BASE will review administrative policy and financial management system and amend it. In order to raise internal fund various programs like micro finance, cooperatives, training organization, membership will be increased and renewal work will be continued. BASE will develop and promote human resource to implement decentralize program continuously and expand it to other additional districts. BASE will implement a code of conduct for staffs and committee members to make good impression of organization. The organization will institutionalize sharing forum for self criticism, grievances, conflict between staffs and committee members. To ensure organization’s transparency BASE will organize Social audit, public hearing and publish progress and financial report. It will help to update financial transaction to the stakeholder frequently. Every year on the basis of internal and external resources annual plan will be made and implemented. In order to make the organization economically sustained, a fund will be established which will be utilize to reduce dependency.
Information and documentation section will develop information resource center in all working district which will be responsible for budget analysis, legal and policy research, documentation and information dissemination. It will continue Sanghari paper publication. This section will keep copies of the documents produced by the organization as well as paper cutting of related documents published by other organization.
Program Log Frame
The strategic outputs as per this strategic plan with its objectively verifiable indicators, means of verification and assumptions has been put in a logical framework. Please refer to Annex 1 for the program log frame of this strategic plan.
Progress Monitoring Plan
BASE will strengthen its planning, monitoring and evaluation process and of its partners for effective monitoring of this strategy. A systematic monitoring and evaluation strategy will be developed and implemented. The logical frame work will be the basis for designing the system. Adequate flexibility for amendments in the annual work plans and a provision for incorporating findings of all relevant monitoring and review reports will be ensured. In addition to regular monitoring exercises, internal and external evaluations will also be undertaken periodically. Periodic review by external experts of the change process and management audits will be carried out to keep track of the progress.
Risk and Assumption
We can assume that there might be some uncertainties underlying during the design of this strategic plan. Some of the assumptions for achieving objective range from sustained donor investments and availability of funding. Instable government, new federal structure, uncertainty of local government officials and frequent movement of staffs are the risk for the continuous implementation of the programs. In addition, willingness of the partners to share information and collaborate in advocacy initiatives is an assumption. BASE has assumed to bring positive changes in whole management system by developing capacity that will apply good governance practices in the organization which will help to provide quality services in the community. Given the potential risks constant assessment will be done and amendment on the strategies will be made for efficient implementation of the plan.