Theme 1: Education and Social Protection (Child Labour and Human Trafficking)
Tharu is marginalized community due to illiteracy that’s why BASE was started with the principle of literacy campaign in western part of Nepal. As it continued literacy campaign and BASE realized that education is equally important for empowering marginalized population, abolition of child labour and human trafficking. Education is the primary tool to produce capable and skilful human resources for the development of a nation. Everyone has a right to access equitable and quality education. Therefore, all level of governments (federal, province and local level), guardians, teachers, school management committee, NGOs and concerned stakeholders have to work together, support each other and coordinate among themselves to improve education in community schools. And it is also necessary to enhance their skills for quality education. Constitution of Nepal 2072 in its Article 31 has provisioned free and compulsory basic education and free education of secondary level for all citizens; free and Braille script education to blind and sign language education to dumb and deaf persons in accordance with law. The government of Nepal has developed an educational action plan in accordance with the SDG 4’s provision “Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all” and BASE supports this action plan through community mobilization, capacity building of teachers and SMCs/PTAs support teaching materials and school infrastructures as well. It is necessary to provide education with current educational approach, principle and practical experiences in the changed context.
BASE launched movements to liberate bonded labourers (Kamaiya) and their children (Kamlahari) with Kamaiya families in Midwest and far-western part of Nepal since 1985 AD. In Accordance with SDG 4 &16, GoN has set goals for inclusive and equal access to education for all and to eliminate all types of violence against children – physical and mental abuse, exploitation, trafficking and many other violations of children’s rights. To reinforce the rights of children and systematic mechanism of child protection, GoN has promulgated the “Children’s Act 2075″, a comprehensive child rights prevention, promotion and protection of children tool. The GoN also has produced “Child Friendly School Frame for Quality Education” which has provisioned various child friendly standards to be achieved in schools. With slogan of “every child has right to quality education”, GoN aims to end all forms of child labour by 2025 AD. BASE believes that the concept of child friendly village will help to eliminate horrifying offences of child abuses, child labour and trafficking of children. Nepal has ratified ILO convention no. 29 (Forced labour), convention no. 138 (minimum age) and convention no. 182 (worst forms of child labour) and UN TIP 2000. GoN promulgated ‘Bonded Labour (Prohibition) Act, 2002 responding to BASE movement against “Kamaiya” system. This act declared liberation of “Kamaiya” and keeping bonded labour as punishable and illegal offence.
There was 500% rise in trafficking of girl child from Nepal to India in 2017 compared to 2013. They are trafficked for brothels, domestic servant, forced labour exploitation and organs removal trade (Indian SSB report 2017). The child victims of child marriage, sexual abuse, bullying, physical and mental torture, abandon, negligence, family separation are being raised in Nepal. CWIN has recorded total 593 case of rape and sexual abuse on 2018 and out of them 228 cases were of under 18 years old (children); and 87 cases were of below 10 years old/youngest being 7 month old; and 173 (134 girls and 39 boys) cases of child sex abuse/bullying (CSA) were reported.
Constitution of Nepal 2015 in sub articles 2,3 & 4 of article 29 has declared right against exploitation which prohibits exploitation on grounds of religion, custom, tradition, usage, practice or on any other grounds, trafficking and slavery or servitude and forced to work against his/ her will. So far, article 51 by its sub article (3) of (I) section declares to abolish all forms of labour exploitation including child labour. It can be taken a positive progress for Nation and people of Nepal. BASE can significantly contribute to implement Government’s action plan to end all forms of child labour by 2025 AD and reduce the child abuses and violation of the rights of the children.
Goal, Objective and Strategy:
To create opportunity for all children to access quality, technical and life skill education and contribute on ending child abuse, child labour and reducing human trafficking.
By end of 2023,
- Prepare 20,000 children below 5 years old to school enrolment by giving access to early childhood development or pre-primary education.
- To access quality education for child friendly environment among 50,000 students of basic education grade and to decrease 10% of school dropout rate.
- To create opportunity of life skill education for 40,000 secondary level students.
- To create self-employment by providing technical education to 500 youth.
- To increase 20% participation of parents/guardians and stakeholders in school activities to decrease dropout rate and improve quality education.
- To end 80% child labour and decrease human trafficking rate by 50%.
- To reduce 60% of child abuses in community and 80% in schools.
- To initiate advocacy to develop and implement child safeguarding policies in 200 schools/community/ward level, and child labour and human trafficking control policies, directives and standards with GoN at different level.
- Mobilize community, schools, media, stakeholders and traditional institutions for campaigning to increase enrolment rate in school and reduce school dropout rate.
- Promote skills of teachers, well equip by teaching materials and create learning environment to promote quality education in schools.
- Develop capacity of Parent Teacher Association (PTA) and School Management Committee (SMC) for education, improvement plan and effective monitoring and evaluation.
- Coordinate, collaborate and advocate to develop and implement policies, guideline and standard and to establish regular monitoring, evaluation and learning mechanism in each governments.
- Form/reform and mobilize child and adolescent clubs, child friendly village committee, anti-trafficking committee and BASE committees at villages of BASE working area to end child labour and to track traffickers.
- Work with the local level institutions (Palikas) to create social and legal counselling mechanism and to access to local judiciary committees provide technical/ financial support for rehabilitation of child labour, women victims of human trafficking and social violence.